The F. I. D. E. Laws Of Chess


   The Laws of Chess cannot cover all possible situations that 
may arise during a game, nor can they regulate all administrative 
questions. Where cases are not precisely regulated by an Article 
of the Laws, it should be possible to reach a correct decision by 
studying analogous situations which are discussed in the Laws.

   The Laws assume arbiters have the necessary competence, 
sound judgment and absolute objectivity. Too detailed a rule 
might deprive the arbiter of his freedom of judgment and thus 
prevent him from finding the solution to a problem dictated 
by fairness, logic and special factors.

   F.I.D.E. appeals to all chess players and federations to accept 
this view. Any chess federation that already operates, or wants to 
introduce, more detailed rules is free to do so, provided:

 (a)  they do not conflict in any way with the official 
F.I.D.E. Laws of Chess;

 (b)  they are limited to the territory of the federation in
question; and

 (c)  they are not valid for any F.I.D.E. match, championship,
or qualifying event, or to a F.I.D.E. title or rating tournament.
   In the Articles of these Laws, "he", "him" and "his" can refer to 
"she", "her" and "hers".


Article 1:    The Chessboard 
----------    --------------      

      The game of chess is played between two opponents by moving pieces
      on a square board called a  "chessboard".
 1.1  The chessboard is composed of 64 equal squares, alternately light 
      (the  "white" squares) and dark (the  "black" squares).

 1.2  The chessboard is placed between the players in such a way that 
      the near corner to the right of each player is white.

 1.3  The eight vertical rows of squares are called  "files".

 1.4  The eight horizontal rows of squares are called  "ranks".

 1.5  The lines of squares of the same colour, touching corner to corner, 
       are called  "diagonals".


Article 2:    The Pieces   
----------    ----------    

 2.1  At the beginning of the game, one player has 16 light-coloured 
      pieces (the  "white" pieces), the other has 16 dark-coloured 
      pieces (the  "black"  pieces.

 2.2  These pieces are as follows: 
      A white king:          K            A black king:        k  
      A white queen:         Q            A black queen:       q  
      Two white rooks:       R            Two black rooks:     r  
      Two white knights:     N            Two black knights:   n  
      Two white bishops:     B            Two black bishops:   b  
      Eight white pawns:     P            Eight black pawns:   p  

 2.3  The initial position of the pieces on the chessboard is as follows:

      | r |.n.| b |.q.| k |.b.| n |.r.|   -- this square is "black"
      |.p.| p |.p.| p |.p.| p |.p.| p |
      |   |...|   |...|   |...|   |...|
      |...|   |...|   |...|   |...|   |
      |   |...|   |...|   |...|   |...|
      |...|   |...|   |...|   |...|   |
      | P |.P.| P |.P.| P |.P.| P |.P.|
      |.R.| N |.B.| Q |.K.| B |.N.| R |   -- this square is "white"

Article 3:    The Right To Move 
----------    -----------------    

 3.1  The player with the white pieces commences the game. The players
      alternate in making one move at a time until the game is completed. 
 3.2  A player is said to  "have the move" when his opponent's move 
      has been completed.


Article 4:    The General Definition Of The Move    
----------    ----------------------------------
 4.1  With the exception of castling (Article 5.1(b)), a move is the
      transfer by a player of one of his pieces from one square to 
      another square, which is either vacant or occupied by an opponent's 
      [A capture is, therefore, merely a certain type of move.] 

 4.2  No piece, except the rook when castling (Article 5.1(b)) and the
      knight (Article 5.5), may cross a square occupied by another piece.

 4.3  A piece played to a square occupied by an opponent's piece captures 
      it as part of the same move. The captured piece must be removed
      immediately from the chessboard by the player making the capture 
      (see Article 5.6(c) for capturing "en passant").


Article 5:    The Moves Of The Pieces     
----------    -----------------------
 5.1  The King:
      (a)  Except when castling, the king moves to any adjoining square 
           that is not attacked by an opponent's piece.
      (b)  Castling is a move of the king and either rook, counting as a
           single move of the king and executed as follows: the king is
           transferred from its original square two squares toward either 
           rook on the same rank; then that rook is transferred over the 
           king to the square the king has just crossed.
      (c)  If a player touches a rook and then his king, he may not castle 
           with that rook and the situation will by governed by Articles 
           7.2 and 7.3 [Touched Piece rules].
      (d)  If a player, intending to castle, touches the king first, or
           king and rook at the same time, and it then appears that castling 
           is illegal, the player may choose either to move his king or to 
           castle on the other side, provided that castling on that side is 
           legal. If the king has no legal move, the player is free to make 
           any legal move.
      (e)  Castling is [permanently] illegal:
           (i)  if the king has already been moved; or
          (ii)  with a rook that has already been moved.
      (f)  Castling is prevented for the time being:
           (i)  if the king's original square, or the square which the king 
                must pass over, or that which it is to occupy, is attacked 
                by an  opponent's piece; or
          (ii)  if there is any piece between the king and the rook with
                which castling is to be effected [i.e. castling may still 
                be legal even if the rook is attacked or, when castling 
                queenside, passes over an attacked square] .

 5.2  The Queen.
      The queen moves to any square (except as limited by Article 4.2)
      [No leapfrogging]  on the file, rank, or diagonals on which it stands.

 5.3  The Rook.
      The rook moves to any square (except as limited by Article 4.2) on the 
      file or rank on which it stands.

 5.4  The Bishop.
      The bishop moves to any square (except as limited by Article 4.2) on 
      the diagonals on which it stands.

 5.5  The Knight.
      The knight's move is composed of two different steps; first, it makes
      one step of one single square along its rank or file, and then, still
      moving away from the square of departure, one step of one single
      square on a diagonal. It does not matter if the square of the first
      step is occupied.

 5.6  The Pawn.
      (a)  The pawn may move only forward [except as limited by Article 4.2].
      (b)  Except when making a capture, it advances from its original 
           square either one or two vacant squares along the file on which 
           it is placed, and on subsequent moves it advances one vacant 
           square along the file. When capturing, it advances one square 
           along either of the diagonals on which it stands.
      (c)  A pawn, attacking a square crossed by an opponent's pawn which
           has  [just]  been advanced two squares in one move from its 
           original square, may capture this opponent's pawn as though the 
           latter had been moved only one square. This capture may only be 
           made in [immediate] reply to such an advance, and is called an     
           "en passant"  capture.
      (d)  On reaching the last rank, a pawn must immediately be exchanged, 
           as part of the same move, for [either] a queen, a rook, a bishop, 
           or a knight, of the same colour as the pawn, at the player's 
           choice and without taking into account the other pieces still 
           remaining on the chessboard. This exchange of a pawn for another 
           piece is called  "promotion", and the effect of the promoted 
           piece is immediate [and permanent!].
      (e)  In a competition, if a new piece required for the promotion is 
           not immediately available, the player may stop his clock to ask 
           for the assistance of the arbiter. The player must complete his 
           move correctly, in the manner specified in Article 5.6(d).


Article 6:    The Completion Of The Move    
----------    --------------------------
      A move is completed:

 6.1  in the case of the transfer of a piece to a vacant square, when 
      the player's hand has released the piece;

 6.2  in the case of a capture, when the captured piece has been removed
      from the chessboard and the player, having placed his own piece on 
      its new square, has released this [capturing] piece from his hand;

 6.3  in the case of castling, when the player's hand has released the 
      rook on the square [previously] crossed by the king. When the player 
      has released the king from his hand, the move is not yet completed, 
      but the player no longer has the right to make any move other than 
      castling on that side, if this is legal;

 6.4  in the case of the promotion of a pawn, when the pawn has been
      removed from the chessboard and the player's hand has released the 
      new piece after placing it on the promotion square. If the player 
      has released from his hand the pawn that has reached the promotion 
      square, the move is not yet completed, but the player no longer has 
      the right to play the pawn to another square.

 6.5  When determining whether the prescribed number of moves has been made 
      in the allotted time, the last move is not considered complete until 
      after the player has stopped his clock. This applies to all situations 
      except those governed by Articles 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4 and 10.6. 
      [i.e. when the move has been completed in the sense of Articles 6.1-6.4, 
      and the game ends immediately after the move in question, which may, 
      for example, put the player's opponent into checkmate. This Law was 
      introduced to prevent the situation where a player returns to the board 
      to claim a win on time, possibly an hour after being checkmated!] .


Article 7:    The Touched Piece 
----------    ----------------- 

 7.1  Provided that he first expresses his intention (e.g. by saying
      "j'adoube"), the player having the move may adjust one or more pieces 
      on their squares.    
      [If a player's opponent is absent from the chessboard, it is best to 
      inform one of his team-mates, or some other witness.] 

 7.2  Except for the above case, if the player having the move deliberately 
      touches on the board:
      (a)  one or more pieces of the same colour, he must move or capture
           the first piece he touched that can be moved or captured; or
      (b)  one of his own pieces and one of his opponent's pieces, he must
           capture his opponent's piece with his own piece; or, if this is 
           illegal, move or capture the first piece he touched that can be 
           moved or captured. If it is impossible to establish which piece 
           was touched first, the player's piece shall be considered the 
           touched piece.

 7.3  If none of the touched pieces has a legal move (or if none of the
      opponent's pieces which were touched can be captured legally), the 
      player is free to make any legal move.

 7.4  If a player wishes to claim that his opponent has violated Article
      7.2, he must do so before he himself touches a piece.
      [Note that the clause "deliberately touches" protects a player from 
      having to move a piece accidentally touched by his elbow/wrist etc] 


Article 8:    Illegal Positions 
----------    -----------------

 8.1  If, during a game, it is found that an illegal move was made, the
      position shall be reinstated to what it was before the illegal move 
      was made. The game shall then continue by applying the rules of 
      Article 7 to the move replacing the illegal move. If the position 
      cannot be reinstated, the game shall be annulled and a new game 
      played. This applies to all sessions of play, and to a game awaiting 
      a decision by adjudication.    
      [Note that this discovery of an illegal move must be made while the 
      game is still in progress, before resignation or the agreement of a 
      draw. The only possible exception can be if the illegal move itself 
      would theoretically end the game: anyone trying the trick 1. e2-e4 
      e7-e5; 2. Bf1-c4 Ng8-f6; 3. Qd1xf7 "mate" may be penalised under 
      Article 10.17! Note that the act of playing an illegal move, at ANY 
      stage of the game, does not IN ITSELF forfeit the game.] 

 8.2  If, during a game, one or more pieces have been accidentally
      displaced and incorrectly replaced, the position before the 
      displacement occurred shall be reinstated, and the game shall 
      continue. If the position cannot be reinstated, the game shall be 
      annulled and a new game played.

 8.3  If a player moves and in the course of this inadvertently knocks 
      over a piece, or several pieces, he must re-establish the position 
      in his own time. 

 8.4  If, after an adjournment, the position is incorrectly set up, the 
      position as it was on adjournment must be set up again and the game 

 8.5  If, during a game, it is found that the initial position of the 
      pieces was incorrect, the game shall be annulled and a new game played.

 8.6  If a game has begun with colours incorrectly reversed, then it shall 
      continue if more than one quarter of the time allocated to both 
      players to the first time control has elapsed. Earlier, the arbiter 
      can arrange for a new game to start with the correct colours, if the 
      event's timetable is not excessively disrupted. 

 8.7  If, during a game, it is found that the board has been placed contrary 
      to Article 1.2, the position reached should be transferred to a
      correctly-placed board, and the game continued. 
      [In the situations covered by Articles 8.5-8.7, a spectator is 
      justified in pointing out to the arbiter the error he has noticed. 
      In Article 8.7, the implicit assumption is that the relative 
      positions of the pieces relative to one another were correct] .


Article 9:    Check   
----------    -----   

 9.1  The king is in "check" when the square it occupies is attacked by 
      one or more of the opponent's pieces; in this case, the latter is/are 
      said to be  "checking" the king. A player may not make a move which 
      leaves his king on a square attacked by any of his opponent's pieces.

 9.2  Check must be parried by the move immediately following. If any check 
      cannot be parried, the king is said to be "checkmated" ("mated").
 9.3  Declaring a check is not obligatory. 
      [Merely polite! Playing an illegal move does not imply the loss of 
      the game: see Article 8.1.] 

Article 10:    The Completed Game  
-----------    ------------------
10.1  The game is won by the player who has checkmated his opponent's 
      king. This immediately ends the game.

10.2  The game is won by the player whose opponent declares he resigns.
      This immediately ends the game.

10.3  The game is drawn when the king of the player who has the move is 
      not in check, and this player cannot make any legal move. The player's 
      king is then said to be "stalemated". This immediately ends the game. 
      [If the stalemating move was actually legal!] .

10.4  The game is drawn when one of the following endings arises:
      (a)  king against king;
      (b)  king against king with only bishop or knight;
      (c)  king and bishop against king and bishop, with both bishops 
           on diagonals of the same colour.
      This immediately ends the game.

10.5  A player having a bare king cannot win the game. A draw shall be 
      declared if the opponent of a player with a bare king oversteps the 
      time limit (Articles 10.13 and 10.14) or seals an illegal move 
      (Articles 10.16).

10.6  The game is drawn upon agreement between the two players. This 
      immediately ends the game.

10.7  A proposal of a draw under the provisions of Article 10.6 may be
      made by a player only at the moment when he has just moved a piece. 
      On then proposing a draw, he starts the clock of his opponent. The 
      latter may accept the proposal, which is always to be taken as 
      unconditional, or he may reject it either orally or by completing a 
      move. A draw offer is valid until the opponent has accepted or 
      rejected it.
      [The gamesmanship question "Are you playing for a win?" can be 
      considered as an offer of a draw] .

10.8  If a player proposes a draw while his opponent's clock is running 
      and his opponent is contemplating his move, the opponent may still 
      agree to the draw or reject the offer. A player who offers a draw 
      in this manner may be penalised by the arbiter.

10.9  If a player proposes a draw while his own clock is running or after 
      his move has been sealed, the opponent may postpone his decision 
      until after he has seen the first player's move. 

10.10 The game is drawn, upon a claim by the player having the move, when 
      the same position, for the third time:
      (a)  is about to appear, if he first writes the move on his scoresheet 
           and declares to the arbiter his intention of making this move; or 
      (b)  has just appeared, the same player having the move each time. 
      The position is considered the same if pieces of the same kind and 
      colour occupy the same squares, and if all the possible moves of all 
      the pieces are the same, including the rights to castle [at some 
      future time] or to capture a pawn "en passant".

10.11 If a player executes a move without having claimed a draw for one 
      of the reasons stated in Article 10.10, he loses the right to claim 
      a draw. This right is restored to him, however, if the same position    
      [later] appears again, the same player having the move.

10.12 The game is drawn when a player having the move claims a draw and 
      demonstrates that at least [the last?] 50 consecutive moves have been 
      made by each side without the capture of any piece and without the 
      movement of any pawn. This number of 50 moves can be increased for 
      certain positions, provided that this increase in number and these 
      positions have been clearly announced by the organisers before the 
      event starts.
      [The claim then proceeds according to 10.13. The most extreme case 
      yet known of a position which might take more than 50 moves to win is
      king, rook and bishop against king and two knights, which can run for 
      223 moves between captures!] 

10.13 If a player claims a draw under the provisions of Articles 10.10 
      and/or 10.12, the arbiter must first stop the clocks while the claim 
      is being investigated. In the absence of the arbiter, a player may
      stop both clocks to seek the arbiter's assistance.
      (a)  If the claim is found to be correct, the game is drawn.
      (b)  If the claim is found to be incorrect, the arbiter shall then 
           add five minutes to the claimant's used time. If this means that 
           the claimant has [now] overstepped the time limit, his game will 
           be declared lost. Otherwise, the game will be continued, and a 
           player who has indicated a move according to Article 10.10(a) is 
           obliged to execute this move on the chessboard.
      (c)  A player who has made a claim under these Articles cannot 
           withdraw the claim.

10.14 The game is lost by a player who has not completed the prescribed
      number of moves in the allotted time, unless his opponent has only 
      the king remaining, in which case the game is drawn. (See Articles 6.5 
      and 10.5.)
      [Situations when Articles 10.1-10.4 or 10.6 apply are the only other 

10.15 The game is lost by a player who arrives at the chessboard more than 
      one hour late, for the beginning of the game or for the resumption of
      an adjourned game. The time of delay is counted from the [scheduled]  
      start of the playing session. However, in the case of an adjourned 
      game, if the player who made the sealed move is the late player, the 
      game is decided otherwise if:
      (a)  the absent player has won the game by virtue of the fact that 
           the  sealed move is checkmate; or
      (b)  the absent player has produced a drawn game by virtue of the
           fact that the sealed move is stalemate, or if one of the 
           positions in Article 10.4 has arisen as a consequence of the 
           sealed move; or
      (c)  the player present at the chessboard has lost the game according 
           to Article 10.14 by exceeding his time limit.

10.16 At the resumption, the game is lost by a player whose recording
      of his sealed move:
      (a)  is ambiguous; or
      (b)  would result in a false move the true significance of which is 
           impossible to establish; or 
      (c)  would result in an illegal move.

10.17 The game is lost by a player who, during the game, refuses to comply 
      with the Laws. If both players refuse to comply with the Laws, or if 
      both players arrive at the chessboard more than one hour late, the 
      game shall be declared lost by both players.


Article 11:    The Recording Of Games    
-----------    ----------------------
11.1  In the course of play, each player is required to record the game
      (his own moves and those of his opponent), move after move, as 
      clearly and legibly as possible in the Algebraic Notation, on the 
      scoresheet prescribed for the competition. It is irrelevant whether 
      the player first makes his move and then records it, or vice versa.
      [The use of Descriptive Notation or foreign versions of Algebraic 
      Notation is tolerated in internal tournaments, e.g. weekend

11.2  If a player has less than five minutes on his clock until the time
      control, he is not obliged to meet the requirements of Article 11.1. 
      As soon as the special device (e.g. the flag) on the clock indicates 
      the end of his allotted time, the player must immediately complete 
      his record of the game by filling in the moves omitted from his 
      [A player may be justified in restarting his opponent's clock, 
      without having to make a move, if his opponent has more than 5 minutes 
      left and is not fulfilling the requirements of Article 11.1. A player 
      cannot stop his clock unless he has recorded at least his opponent's
      last move and all previous moves of the game.] 

11.3  If both players cannot keep score, the arbiter, or his deputy, must 
      endeavour to be present and keep score. The arbiter must not intervene 
      unless one flag falls, and until then he should not indicate in any 
      manner to the players how many moves have been made.

11.4  If Article 11.2 does not apply, and a player refuses to record the
      game according to Article 11.1, then Article 10.17 should be applied
      [Failure to comply with the Laws of Chess]. 

11.5  If a player does not refuse to comply with the arbiter's request for 
      a completed scoresheet, but declares that he cannot complete his 
      scoresheet without consulting his opponent's, the request for this 
      scoresheet must be made to the arbiter, who will determine whether 
      the scoresheet can be completed before the time-control without 
      inconveniencing the other player. The latter cannot refuse his 
      scoresheet, because the scoresheet belongs to the organisers and the 
      reconstruction will be made in his opponent's time. In all other 
      cases, the scoresheets can be completed only after the time-control.

11.6  If, after the time-control, one player alone has to complete his
      scoresheet, he will do so before making another move, and with his 
      clock running if his opponent has moved.

11.7  If, after the time-control, both players need to complete their
      scoresheets, both clocks will be stopped until the two scoresheets 
      are completed, if necessary with the help of the arbiter's scoresheet 
      and/or a chessboard under the control of the arbiter, who should have 
      recorded the actual game position beforehand. 
      [In case this position gets disturbed!] 

11.8  If, in Article 11.6, the arbiter sees that the scoresheets alone cannot 
      help in the reconstruction of the game, he will act as in Article 11.7.

11.9  If it proves impossible to reconstruct the moves as prescribed under 
      Article 11.7, the game shall continue. In this case, the next move
      played will be considered to be the first one of the following 


Article 12:    The Chess Clock
-----------    ---------------    

12.1  Each player must make a certain number of moves in an allotted period 
      of time, these two factors being specified in advance. The time saved 
      by a player during one period is added to his time available for the 
      next period.

12.2  Control of each player's time is effected by means of a clock
      equipped with a flag (or other special device) for this purpose. 
      The flag is considered to have fallen when the arbiter observes 
      the fact, or when the arbiter determines that the allotted time 
      has been exceeded, even though the flag, because of a defect, 
      has not fallen when the end of the minute hand has passed the 
      end of the flag. In cases where no arbiter is present, the flag 
      is considered to have fallen when a claim to that effect has been 
      made by a player.

12.3  At the time determined for the start of the game, the clock of the 
      player who has the white pieces is started. During the game, each 
      of the players, having completed his move, stops his own clock and 
      starts his opponent's clock.

12.4  Every indication given by a clock is considered to be conclusive
      in the absence of evident defects. A player who wishes to claim 
      any such defect must do so as soon as he himself has become aware 
      of it, but not later than immediately after his flag has fallen 
      at the time-control. A clock with an obvious defect should be 
      replaced, and the time used by each player up to the time the 
      game was interrupted should be indicated on the new clock as 
      accurately as possible. The arbiter shall use his best judgment 
      in determining what times shall be shown on the new clock. If 
      the arbiter decides to add time used to the clock of one or both 
      of the players, he shall under no circumstances (except as provided 
      for in Article 10.13(b)) leave a player with:
      (a)  less than five minutes to the time-control; or
      (b)  less than one minute for every move to the time-control.

12.5  If the game needs to be interrupted for some reason which requires
      action by the arbiter, the clocks shall be stopped by the arbiter. 
      This should be done, for example, in the case of an illegal position 
      being corrected, in the case of a defective clock being changed, or 
      if the piece which a player has declared he wishes to exchange for 
      a promoted pawn is not immediately available, or to claim a draw by 
      repetitions of position or under the 50 moves rule. If the arbiter 
      is not present, a player may stop both clocks in order to seek the 
      arbiter's assistance.

12.6  In the case of Articles 8.1 and 8.2 [Illegal Positions], when it is 
      not possible to determine the exact time used by each player up to 
      the moment when the irregularity occurred, each player shall be 
      allotted up to that moment a time proportional to that indicated by 
      the clock when the irregularity was ascertained. 
      For example, after Black's 30th move it is found that an irregularity 
      took place at the 20th move. For these 30 moves, the clock shows 90 
      minutes for White and 60 minutes for Black, so it is assumed that the 
      times used by the two players for the first 20 moves were as follows:  
      for White:   90 x 20/30 = 60 minutes
      for Black:   60 x 20/30 = 40 minutes  
      This rule must not be used to leave a player with less than five
      minutes to the time control, or less than one minute for every move 
      to the time control. (The most common occasion when this problem 
      arises is immediately after an adjournment, when the clock times can 
      be most easily adjusted using the times on the sealed move envelope.)

12.7  A resignation or an agreement to draw (Articles 10.2 and 10.4) 
      remains valid even if it is found later that a flag had fallen.

12.8  If both flags have fallen at virtually the same time [or if both 
      have fallen before a claim is made by either player] and the arbiter 
      is unable to establish clearly which flag fell first, the game shall 
      continue. In this case, if the scoresheets cannot be brought up to 
      date showing that the time control has been passed, the next move 
      played will be considered to be the first one of the following 

12.9  The arbiter [and everyone else, for that matter] shall refrain from 
      calling a player's attention to the fact that his opponent has made a 
      move or that the player has forgotten to stop his clock after he has 
      made a move, or informing the player how many moves he has made, etc.


Article 13:    The Adjournment Of The Game    
-----------    ---------------------------
13.1  (a)  If a game is not finished at the end of the time prescribed 
           for play, the player having the move must write his move in 
           unambiguous notation on his scoresheet, put his scoresheet and 
           that of his opponent in an envelope, seal the envelope, and 
           only then stop his clock without starting his opponent's clock. 
           Until he has stopped the clocks, the player retains the right 
           to change his sealed move. If, after being told by the arbiter 
           to seal his move, the player makes a move on the chessboard, he 
           must write that same move on his scoresheet as his sealed move.
      (b)  A player having the move who adjourns the game before the end 
           of the playing session will have added to the used time on his 
           clock the whole of the remaining time to the end of the session.

13.2  Upon the envelope shall be indicated:
      (a)  the names of the players;
      (b)  the position immediately before the sealed move;
      (c)  the time used by each player;
      (d)  the name of the player who has sealed the move; and
      (e)  the number of the sealed move.

13.3  The arbiter is responsible for the safekeeping of the envelope
      and should check the accuracy of the information on it.


Article 14:    The Resumption of the Adjourned Game   
-----------    ------------------------------------
14.1  When the game is resumed, the position immediately before the sealed 
      move shall be set up on the chessboard, and the time used by each 
      player when the game was adjourned shall be indicated on the clocks.

14.2  The envelope shall be opened only when the player who must reply to 
      the sealed move is present. This player's clock shall be started 
      after the sealed move has been made on the chessboard.
      (a)  If two players have agreed to a draw and announce their decision 
           to the arbiter; or
      (b)  if one of the players in an adjourned game notifies the arbiter 
           that he resigns and it is found, when the envelope has been
           opened, that the sealed move is invalid according to Article 
           10.16, then in (a) the draw stands and in (b) the resignation 
           is still valid.

14.3  If the player having to respond to the sealed move is absent, his 
      clock shall be started but the envelope containing the sealed move 
      shall be opened only when he arrives. The player's clock shall then 
      be stopped and restarted after the sealed move has been played on 
      the chessboard.

14.4  If the player who has sealed the move is absent, the player having 
      the move is not obliged to reply to the sealed move on the chessboard.
      He has the right to record his move in reply on his scoresheet, to 
      seal the scoresheet in an envelope, to stop his clock and start his 
      opponent's clock. The envelope should then be put into safekeeping 
      and opened on the opponent's arrival.

14.5  If the envelope containing the move recorded in accordance with 
      Article 13 has disappeared:
      (a)  the game shall be resumed from the position at the time of 
           adjournment and with the clock times recorded at the time of 
      (b)  if it is impossible to re-establish the position, the game is 
           annulled and a new game must be played;
      (c)  if the time used at the time of the adjournment cannot be
           re-established, this question is decided by the arbiter. The 
           player who sealed the move makes it on the board.  

14.6  If, upon resumption of the game, the time used has been incorrectly 
      indicated on either clock, and if either player points this out 
      before making his first move, the error must be corrected. If the 
      error is not so established, the game continues without correction, 
      unless the arbiter feels that the consequences will be too severe.

14.7  The duration of each resumption session shall be controlled by the 
      wall clock, with the starting time and the finishing time announced 
      in advance.


Article 15:    The Conduct Of The Players   
-----------    --------------------------
15.1  Prohibitions:
      (a)  During play, the players are forbidden to make use of 
           hand-written, printed or otherwise recorded matter, or to 
           analyse the game on another chessboard. They are also forbidden 
           to have recourse to the advice of a third party, whether 
           solicited or not. 
           [The only possible exception is that a player in a team
           competition may be allowed to ask his captain  "Should I accept 
           his offer of a draw?" or  "Does the team need me to play for a 
           win?". The captain or acting-captain must limit his reply to an 
           immediate  "Yes",  "No", or  "It's up to you", without supplying 
           his answer after a detailed analysis of the position, and without 
           making his answer emphatic in any way. This captain, like all his 
           players, is not allowed to receive opinions, from any source, on 
           the states of play of any games still in progress] .
      (b)  The use of notes made during the game as an aid to memory is 
           also forbidden, aside from the actual recording of the moves 
           and the times on the clocks.
      (c)  No analysis is permitted in the playing rooms during play or 
           during resumption sessions.
      (d)  It is forbidden to distract or annoy the opponent in any manner 
           whatsoever. This includes the persistent offering of a draw.

15.2  Infractions of the rules indicated in Article 15.1 may incur penalties 
      even to the extent of the loss of the game (see Article 16.5).


Article 16:    The Arbiter 
-----------    -----------

      An arbiter should be designated to control the competition. His 
      duties are:

16.1  to see that the Laws are strictly observed;

16.2  to supervise the progress of the competition, to establish that the 
      prescribed time-limit has not been exceeded by the players, to arrange
      the order of resumption of play of adjourned games, to see that the 
      arrangements contained in Article 13 are observed (i.e. to see that 
      the information on the envelope is correct), to keep the sealed-move 
      envelope until the resumption of the adjourned game, etc;
16.3  to enforce the decisions he may make in disputes that have arisen 
      during the course of the competition;

16.4  to act in the best interests of the competition to ensure that a good 
      playing environment is maintained and that the players are not 
      disturbed by each other or by the audience;

16.5  to impose penalties on the players for any fault or infraction of 
      the Laws. These penalties may include a warning, a time penalty 
      (by adding to the player's used time or to his opponent's unused time) 
      or even the loss of the game.


Article 17:    Scoring   
-----------    -------  

      For a won game, the winner gets 1 (one) point and the loser 0 (zero).
      For a draw, each player gets   (half) a point.


Article 18:    The Interpretation of the Laws    
-----------    ------------------------------
      In case of doubts as to the application or interpretation of the Laws, 
      F.I.D.E. will examine the evidence and render official decisions. 
      Rulings published are binding on all affiliated federations. All 
      proposals and questions about interpretations should be submitted by 
      member federations, with complete data.


Article 19:    Validity   
-----------    --------

      This English text is slightly modified from the authentic version 
      of the Laws of chess, as adopted by the 1984 F.I.D.E. Congress, and  
      subsequently amended by the 1988 and 1992 F.I.D.E. Congresses. These 
      Laws took effect from 1 January 1993.